Libertarian 2/18/21

Why I’m Happy That We’re on Parler

Parler users have a reputation for being more conservative than users on other platforms, and more conservative than we are. It’s hard to know for certain, since it’s hard to experience a whole platform; and I’m sure many Parler readers (at least the ones who would read our posts there) are pretty similar to many of our current readers.

But let’s stipulate to Parler’s being more conservative. Let’s even stipulate that there are some people on Parler who have views that I not only disagree with, but outright revile.

Getting it Right

This week, Jonah brings The Remnant to you from the ice-wracked void of Austin, Texas. His guest is Stephanie Slade, the managing editor of Reason magazine.

Stephanie and Jonah provide some helpful explanations of what the oldest coalition of modern conservatism (i.e. “fusionism”) really is, who its members were, and what its political motivations were.

Then, in an instance of “violent agreement,” our two intrepid intellectual explorers refute the idea that this fusionist project is a “dead consensus” or that it necessarily precludes membership from libertarians.

Interestingly, Jonah thinks that the tensions within fusionism are strong enough that “it doesn’t make sense as a purely philosophical project,” but Stephanie is confident that American political history indicates that the tension between virtue and freedom is resolved within the fusion of these different branches of conservatism. link

Libertarian or Orwellian: What to make of the vaccine passport?

Heralded as key to returning to normal, the digital “vaccine passport” may offer a way to make things easier. However, there are many who baulk at the idea of the mass holding of personal data along with security concerns.

Lefties Have More Fun

“Left movements exude the zest of adolescence, which is why they can generate so much thrill and camaraderie and—when they occasionally succeed—such deflated confusion and hollowness.” link

Secession 2/18/21


 It’s likely that were the US to be broken up into smaller pieces, it would be weakened in its ability to act as a global hegemon, invading foreign nations at will, imposing “regime change,” and threatening war with any regime that opposes the whims of the American regime. link

David French Talks “Divided We Fall”

On February 15th, Thomas Koenig was joined by David French to discuss his latest book, Divided We Fall: America’s Secession Threat and How to Restore Our Nation, which was released in September. link

Why is Pablo Hasel, the Spanish rapper who insulted the monarchy, so controversial?

Spanish police say rapper Pablo Hasél was arrested by Catalan police at Lleida University in north-eastern Spain after a 24-hour standoff, where the rapper had barricaded himself in a building. He was taken to prison to serve a nine-month sentence after being convicted of offending the monarchy and endorsing terrorism in tweets and a song. link

‘Banned SFJ was conspiring to disturb atmosphere on R-Day’

New Delhi [India], February 16 (ANI): Delhi Police has said in its First Information Report (FIR) related to ‘Toolkit’ case that the document was created with the aid of a banned organization, Sikhs for Justice, to “disrupt the Republic Day ceremony and precipitate unlawful acts in the name of ongoing farmer protest.” link

Filed under Self-determination 2/17/21

Opposition party Vetëvendosje marks victory in Kosovo’s general election

PRISTINA – Albin Kurti’s Self-Determination Movement (Vetëvendosje) wins Kosovo’s snap parliamentary elections held on February 14th, according to preliminary official results which show that based on 98 per cent of counted ballot, the Self-Determination Movement won 48 per cent of the votes, while all 10 seats for the Serb community went to the Serb List, reports FoNet. link

UN declaration to help First Nations achieve self determination: Bellegarde

OTTAWA — Passing a new law to implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples will get First Nations closer to self-determination, National Chief Perry Bellegarde of the Assembly of First Nations said Wednesday.

Métis Nation of Alberta begins province-wide consultation on self-government Constitution

EDMONTON, AB, Feb. 17, 2021 /CNW/ – The Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) is consulting with its citizens on a draft Constitution that will modernize its approach to self-government.

Following the signing of the historic Métis Government Recognition and Self-Government Agreement (MGRSA) in June 2019 with the Government of Canada, MNA embarked on a process leading to formal federal recognition of Métis Nation self-government in Alberta, including the creation of a Constitution.

The MNA established a Constitution Commission to prepare a draft Constitution based on feedback from Métis citizens from consultations in 2018 leading up to the MGRSA. link

Autonomous Territory 2/17/21

Western Sahara: the Moroccan monarchy and Polisario, a frozen conflict

Since 46 years, while the United Nations sought a settlement of the conflict in Western Sahara after Spain’s withdrawal from the territory, both claimed by the Moroccan monarchy on its historic right to control the southern provinces, and by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), founded by the Polisario in February 1976, on the basis of international law and the principle of the right of peoples to self-determination, which is the basis of the policy of the Organization of the African Union, also intervened in 1979 to find a peaceful solution to the conflict.

According to the United Nations, the Sahara is a non-autonomous territory and has not yet regained its legal status which has remained in abeyance since the 1991 ceasefire, opponents remain frozen in their positions, separated by a “wall protection “, largely controlled at 80% by Morocco on the Atlantic coast and the rest by the Polisario with a buffer zone under the surveillance of Minurso, the UN peacekeeping operation, supposed to organize a referendum of self-determination since 1992, mission never achieved. link

Moroccan HRC Statement a maneuver to cover up its occupation crimes in Western Sahara (CONASADH)

– The Saharawi National Commission for Human Rights (CONASADH) affirmed that the statement published by the so-called Moroccan Council for Human Rights about its meeting with the human rights activist Sultana Khaya, “It is nothing more than a maneuver to cover up the savage crimes suffered by the activist and her family at the hands of the Moroccan security forces.” link

Libertarian 2/17/21

Don’t confuse the left with liberalism

Many on the right blame “liberals” for the current spate of censorship and cancel culture. In doing so, they confuse liberals with leftists. There is a critical distinction.

Liberals are tolerant and open-minded. We welcome debate on divisive issues. We are even sometimes persuaded to change our minds. We try to disagree without being disagreeable.

We do not end friendships over political disagreements. We do not impose our values and preferences on others. We accept George Bernard Shaw’s admonition: “Do not do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. Their tastes may not be the same.” link

Oren Cass Urges Conservatives to Shed Free-Market ‘Orthodoxy’

Donald Trump: Can’t live with him, can’t live without him. Republican Party leaders aren’t expelling Trump from the party because, even though they lost the White House and both houses of Congress during his tenure, they’re afraid they would do even worse without him as their link to the working class.

But center-right thinker Oren Cass says there’s a brand of non-Trumpian conservatism that can win national elections by hanging onto working class GOP voters while appealing to culturally conservative Democrats.

Cass, who worked on Mitt Romney’s 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns, says the key is jettisoning the party’s commitment to what he calls “market fundamentalism.” link

More Republicans than ever think a third political party is necessary, poll finds

Support for a third major political party is at an all-time high in the United States, a poll found. The Gallup poll found 62% of respondents think a third major party is necessary — the highest percentage recorded since Gallup says it began conducting surveys about third parties in 2003.

The poll of 906 American adults, conducted Jan. 21-Feb. 2, has a margin of error of plus or minus 4 percentage points. link

A New Counterweight to Stakeholder Capitalism

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing has reshaped the relationship between shareholders and corporations. Previously, asset managers would put pressure on boards and CEOs when their share prices were underperforming, but under the new framework of “stakeholder capitalism,” boardroom fights are as often about carbon emissions as they are about capital efficiency. link

Libertarian Party meets

The Gila County, Arizona Libertarian Party meets at 6 p.m., Wednesday, Feb. 17 at Denny’s Restaurant, 312 S. Beeline Highway. The group meets in the far corner area, just look for the Libertarian Party sign.

All Gila County residents interested in learning more about America’s third largest and fastest growing political party are welcome to attend. For more information, please visit or call 928-468-3576

Black Market 2/17/21

Romney to introduce bill increasing minimum wage tied to verifying worker immigration status

SALT LAKE CITY — Senators Mitt Romney and Tom Cotton of Arkansas announced they will introduce a bill to raise the national minimum wage and require employers to verify the immigration status of its workers. link

Will sports gambling be legalized in Ohio?

Ohio lawmakers are taking a fresh start to approaching the issue of legalized sports gambling in the Buckeye State. There are not yet any specific proposals on the table in 2021.

Instead, seven state senators make up the Select Committee on Gaming, which has begun meeting weekly to hear general testimony on the subjects of legalized sports betting and electronic bingo. link

Minnesota lawmakers introduce board to regulate drug prices

MINNEAPOLIS — Minnesota Democratic lawmakers want to create an independent board to regulate excessive prescription drug prices following a bipartisan effort last year to make insulin more affordable. link

New Mexico Cannabis legalization bill without production cap advances

Lawmakers on a state House committee Monday advanced a cannabis legalization bill that would put no cap on commercial production and would send some of the tax revenue generated by the measure to communities hit hardest by drug addiction and drug-related crimes. link

Venezuela breaks up LPG black market scheme

New arrests in the senior ranks of Venezuela’s state-owned PdV shed light on a growing black market for scarce LPG supplies. link

Grey Market 2/17/21

Smithsonian Looks to Enshrine Tenino’s Wooden Money

Tenino Washington’s response to the pandemic — widely-publicized wooden scrip similar to money that was distributed to residents — may soon be enshrined in the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Here’s the link

A selection of different colored sports cars in a car dealership. Focus is on the red car. The cars are designed and modelled by myself. Very high resolution 3D render.

Broker suspended for his role in “grey market” luxury vehicle sales

A B.C. broker has been fined $7,000 and had his license suspended for a year for his role in a “grey market” scheme to circumvent a ban on selling new luxury cars directly to used vehicle dealerships. Here’s the link

Rolex authorized dealer dragged into court on charges of racketeering

A Chicago-based Rolex authorized dealer has been dragged into court by a former employee who is accusing the company of covering up a conspiracy to “illegally sell Rolex watches to foreign grey market resellers in order to enrich themselves”. Here’s the link

Jedi Hill (Alchemist Jedi)

I help Visionaries Fund their Vision by helping them overcome their fears!!!

JH: Nice to meet you, John. I am a big fan of people taking personal responsibility. What legacy do you intend to create?

JE: The blueprint for self-governance in the Information Economy.

JH: Blueprint for self-governance that might go along nicely with my New Atlantis Project.

JE: What is the New Atlantis Project?

JH: My vision is a world where everyone can thrive instead of fighting to survive. I plan on leading the world by creating an independent island country using the world’s plastic trash as its base.

As far as what I’d like to see happen in America is to win the Libertarian presidential nomination in 2024 along with the presidency so we can work on restoring freedom to the country.

JE: So, you are going to a gyre to collect the plastic and use solar to melt it?

JH: No, I’ll be shipping plastic waste to factories in order to recycle into giant lego-like blocks that will link together for the base of the island. Yes, I ran in 2020 for the libertarian presidential nomination and I plan to again in 2024.

JE: Why not just use fishing nets?

JH: People have tried that it’s not very efficient for the plastic collection. It’s faster to use the plastic trash gathered on land at the moment. What is your involvement with the libertarian party?

JE: Not much, in agorist mode now… how did you become a libertarian… may I ask?

JH: I never fit with the ideas of the duopoly and when Ron Paul ran for president he was the only one talking sense.

JE: When he ran as a republican? or libertarian?

JH: The 2008 run. I remember seeing him in 1988 but I was only 6 at the time so didn’t really understand it all back then. 

JE: I have heard that before…What is it about Ron Paul that reached you?

JH: Someone who also has a mind towards holistic health. eliminating the federal reserve and fiat currency. He was also the only peace candidate. Go back to the constitution and limit the power of government.

There were others but those we the big ones that caught my attention.

JE: Yes, I understand… May I ask your age? I am 65.

JH: 39

JE: Do you own a boat?

JH: No did some sailing when I was younger; hunting for a nice sailboat now.

JE: What do you think of the “Sailing the Farm” book and intentional community?

JH: That looks like an interesting book first I heard of it. I’m looking for an 80-100′ boat as 30′ is way too small for me.

JE: Here borrow my copy…

JH: Thank you for the book.

JE: What do think of the French Polynesia seasteading project?

JH: It was a nice try. I know they are now attempting to do something similar in Panama. Honestly, they need to be outside of the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) along one of the main shipping lanes if they want to make any real progress.

JE: If I were younger I would be a sea gypsy… start out with the Great Loop… then do the Caribbean… Would New Atlantis be stationary?

JH: No, it will be floating; the plan is to make it navigable like a ship.

JE: If I ever ran for president… I would do the great loop. stopping every day or so for a campaign stop… the boat would show the technology… like a moving museum. How can I help you?

JH: Think of who you know that might have engineering skills or has resources to help move things forwards.

JE: I could introduce you to Daniel E. Twedt. He has this vision for Permatrails… Many agorist have a single fixed location… These Permatrails would be a series of farms about a day’s journey apart.

What did you learn from your Presidential Campaign?

JH: That the libertarian party is just as corrupt as the duopoly and it takes money to win.

JE: I bet you have a story to tell! The Libertarian Party is just as corrupt as the duplicity?

JH: As a candidate, we got a list of delegate names and addresses. Once the convention was switched to digital some candidates were given a different list that included phone numbers and email addresses of delegates creating an extremely biased playing field.

JE: Some got more or better information than others?

JH: Yes, some got more and better information

JE: How much does it cost to win?

JH: You could buy the libertarian presidential nomination easily for between $50-100k

JE: I thought the Koch brothers bought the whole thing for $500,000 in 1980; that would be deflation! I am so sorry… You thought they would be fair?

JH: I’m not, I learned more about how things work and what I have to overcome in order to win in 2024

JE: What do you have to overcome to win in 2024?

JH: Get more news publicity, pay for delegates trips to the convention,

JE: What does it cost to pay for a delegate trip?

JH: Say $1,000 per delegate to cover their ticket and hotel, as Gary Johnson did in 2016.

JE: How will you get more publicity?

JH: Well for publicity I’m working on my 2nd book and building a real estate business to bring more jobs to my area as well as affordable housing.

JE: What do you think of the private, and charter cities movements?

JH: I like the private and charter cities; it’s a step in the right direction. They have the potential for lower taxes and more autonomy as opposed to big government oversight; more local focus.

JE: Yes, what do you think of the SEZ law in Nevada? In Nevada desert, a technology firm aims to be a government

JH: Yea I saw that; it depends on which entity runs it; some of those tech companies are straight up dictators

JE: Yes, the most oppressive force in some friends’ life is the Tech firm they work for! That was what was so neat about Florida… a developer like Disney… could just buy up some swamp land… and make whatever he wanted.

Now you have to get government permission to cut down a tree… I hear.

JH: Disney is an interesting case; that’s one of the most micromanaged places on the planet

JE: Yes, that is what I hear… just so they don’t stop me from leaving hehe. I was hoping Smart Cities would be used to provide more freedom…. now I am not sure… What do you think?

JH: I think it’s testing for social currency like china to see how much people are willing to be controlled.

JE: Want to plug your book?

JH: You’re more than welcome to check it out yourself you can download a copy for free at

JE: Does it tell me how to turn lead into gold?

JH: No, but it shows how to transform the way you think and reprogram the subconscious mind.

12. Skywriting and earth writing

Peace activists pledge resistance against U.S. military intervention in Central America, 1984-1990

In the early 1980s, it was no secret that United States president Ronald Reagan would use any means necessary to end or prevent the influence of Communism and the Soviet Union around the globe.

The two countries had been engaged in a bitter ideological struggle since the end of World War II, and each sought to expand their influence to other, mostly developing nations.

From Central America to Sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, the U.S. pursued a foreign policy that made frequent use of military aid—open and clandestine—to countries suspected of either showing or being vulnerable to Soviet influence.

While Reagan was one of the era’s most outspoken and influential anti-Communists, his foreign policy by no means represented an exception to Western, particularly U.S., relations towards the regions like Central America.

Like Reagan, multinational corporations operating in Central America  (many based in the U.S.) viewed the spread of Communism as a threat to their interests; low levels of regulation and taxes on business in developing nations friendly to the United States made for a safe business environment for such corporations. 

Furthermore, U.S. influence, either monetary or physical, had been operating for over a century in the region, well predating the Cold War. In the 1980s, one country—Nicaragua—was feared by peace activists to become the site of the next Cold War battlefield: it began to look more and more like the U.S. would pursue a full-scale invasion to overthrow the country’s leftist Sandinista government, or Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN).

Another concern to peace activists was increasing aid to Contra fighters, an umbrella term for any number of organizations carrying out guerrilla warfare against the FSLN operating in and around Nicaragua; they were notorious for human rights violations and attacks on civilians.

In 1980 and ’81, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) attempted to unite the disparate groups so that it could more effectively administer aid. In January of 1982, the Reagan administration secretly granted the CIA $19 million in military aid to recruit and train Contras.

This would be one of the first in a series of supports the administration would give to the Contras in exchange for their opposition to the FSLN. Aside from flagrant human rights abuses, Contra activity and U.S. support for it was seen by many activists as a sign of things to come; if they could not curb the FSLN to U.S. and industry’s liking, a U.S. invasion would be all the more likely.

At the 1983 annual meeting of the New Abolitionist Covenant, an amalgamation of Christian peace activists, the group decided to take action against ever-escalating U.S. military involvement in Latin America, a policy which had dramatically increased since the Reagan administration took office in 1981. 7,000 U.S. troops had invaded the island of Grenada in order to overthrow Maurice Bishop’s leftist government.

The Covenant’s 53 members feared that this “intervention,” along with the administration’s increasingly hawkish rhetoric, would result in a massive U.S. offensive.

In response, Covenant members Jim Wallis and Jim Rice drafted “A Promise of Resistance,” in which they vowed as Christians to physically obstruct any U.S. invasion of the country.

The letter, published in Sojourners magazine (of which Wallis was an editor), also called upon Christians throughout the country, in case of invasion, to nonviolently occupy congressional offices until the Congress moved to end the invasion.

The magazine sent a copy of the letter to all Congress-people, the Departments of State and Defense, the CIA, and to President Reagan, and each Covenant member presented it personally to the peace group they worked with at home.

After receiving support and input from a number of peace organizations, the Covenant published in Sojourner’s August issue an edited document called the “Pledge of Resistance,” which placed less emphasis on traveling to Nicaragua to nonviolently prevent a U.S. invasion.

It also gave readers contact information for seven regional Witness for Peace chapters that volunteered to serve as regional coordinators for the circulation and implementation of the Pledge.

After reading the letter, Berkeley graduate student Ken Butigan, with the support of David Hartsough of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) began again reworking the document to reach a larger, perhaps less faith based community, as well as to refocus efforts on action in the United States.

He then gathered the support of groups working on a wide variety of issues, including feminists and anti-nuclear activists, to create a coalition committed to the ideals outlined in the document and to taking action in support of them.

In October of 1984, Butigan and allies rallied for the first public signing of the document in front of the San Francisco Federal Building. The event included 700 people signing the Pledge, with many giving testimonies of their reasoning to the crowd.

A number of participants cited religious reasons. Later that month, Sojourners hosted a meeting for peace and justice groups to discuss the Pledge’s implementation.

Citing the San Francisco action, Butigan, speaking on behalf of the AFSC and its allies, called for a highly public, organized and decentralized model of organization, as well as an option for Pledge signers to wage legal protest in addition to civil disobedience.

Coming out of this meeting, the number of regional coordinating offices was expanded from 7 to 10, and Butigan published Basta! No Mandate for War, an instructional pamphlet for local Pledge chapters incorporating new ideological and logistical details for the campaign.

Local activists began to organize more Pledge groups across the country. They sponsored nonviolent direct action trainings, collected signatures, and organized affinity groups.

By the end of 1984, less than 3 months after the San Francisco action, organizers nationwide had collected 42,352 signatures, with half of signers pledging civil disobedience.

College campuses as well as such organizations as the National Lawyers Guild and the Jewish Peace Fellowship continued to publicly endorse the document, and Sojourners sent copies of the collected signatures to the State Department.

The San Francisco Pledge chapter began to enact “peace maneuvers” outside of the city’s Federal Building, a guerrilla theater performance pre-enacting the response of Pledge signers to a possible U.S. invasion in Nicaragua.

Pressure mounted on the U.S. government. The U.S. Congress refused President Reagan’s request for $14 million in aid to right wing Contra fighters, partly because they were known to perform illegal executions (often involving civilians). 

The Reagan administration then imposed an economic embargo on the Nicaragua. In retaliation, Pledge groups across the country planned and executed acts of civil disobedience across 80 cities in 16 states, with over 10,000 demonstrators and 2,000 arrestees.

In June of 1985, the Congress approved $27 million in aid to Contra fighters. In response, the national Pledge leadership expanded its focus from direct U.S. intervention to aid to Contra warfare and carried out massive demonstrations in 42 states, with 1,200 arrested for acts of civil disobedience.

By September, 80,000 people had signed the Pledge and agreed to resist U.S. funding of extra-judicial killings in all of Central America. While Pledge leadership had a clearly defined focus on Nicaragua, the Pledge itself provided something of an umbrella for civil disobedience actions by peace groups and individuals concerned with the larger Central American region.

Many took up action around El Salvador and Guatemala, two more countries negatively impacted by U.S. aid. For instance, the allied group Witness for Peace acted mostly around Nicaragua, but other allies such as CISPES focused almost exclusively on issues in El Salvador even as Pledge leaders redefined goals in relation to Nicaragua.

The wide reach of the Pledge manifested itself not only in issues, but also in tactics, with a number of groups carrying out autonomous actions separate from national leadership. Sources on the Pledge are often unclear as to which actions were which, though all were undertaken in solidarity with and fulfillment of the original Pledge.

All furthered the larger goal of a peaceful Central America, and served to fit Nicaragua—the Pledge leaders’ focus—within that narrative. Throughout 1986 regional chapters led both a massive expansion in Pledge involvement and an escalation of tactics. Activists occupied congressional offices, blocked gates to facilities training Contra fighters and blocked highways and airplane runways, through marches and sit-ins.

Pledge signers showed up en mass to candidates’ campaign appearances in order to bring Contra aid to the attention of potential voters. Around Christmastime, activists also flooded shopping malls to drop banners and sing politicized holiday carols.

In February 1987, U.S. National Guard troops were deployed to Honduras, just north of Nicaragua. Pledge activists staged vigils outside of Congressional offices and mass-mailed legislators’ mailboxes with letters of protest.

An “April Mobilization” brought together activists fighting both U.S. support for Contra fighters and apartheid South Africa; 567 were arrested at the CIA headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Next came a “Summer of Resistance” where protesters blockaded roads and railways to military bases. The Reagan administration, now restricted by Congress from fully supporting the Contras fighting the Nicaraguan government, found a way to evade Congressional decision – to send aid to the Contras by way of Iran. 

When Congress found out about this move – probably illegal and unconstitutional – Congress convened lengthy hearings about the matter. A group of peace-minded U.S. Armed Forces veterans held a three-month vigil outside the Congressional hearings.

In August, the same group of military veterans embarked on a forty-day hunger strike where they blockaded train tracks near Concord, California. During the blockade, one veteran, Brian Wilson, was amputated by an oncoming train. 

Wilson’s injury increased participation in the blockade campaign, drawing the support of Pentagon whistle-blower Daniel Ellsberg and folk singer Joan Baez among other celebrities.

On a rotating basis, an energized group of roughly 1,000 protesters in a human blockade succeeded in blocking arms shipments to the Concord base for over two years.

Because the campaigners across the U.S. stepped up their activity in 1987, 1,200 were arrested in acts of civil disobedience. In February and March of 1988, activists involved in the Pledge’s “Days of Decision” helped to successfully block the passage of two White House proposals for aid to Contra-fighters.

The Reagan administration then sent an additional 3200 troops to Honduras. In the following months, because the campaigners saw increasing U.S. military presence in Honduras as a prelude to a Nicaraguan intervention, 900 activists were arrested in 150 cities throughout the country with 30 military bases targeted with nonviolent direct action for their support of ongoing armed conflicts in Central America.

That October 1988, 500 demonstrators took on the Pentagon itself, blocking entrances, occupying the building’s heliport and planting 500 crosses on the lawn to represent those killed by U.S. support for and instigation of the conflicts.

The U.S. increased its funding to the military of the right wing government of El Salvador; in response, 1,452 people committed civil disobedience and were arrested in November and December.

President Reagan’s eight-year presidency ended in 1988. Reagan had not succeeded in overthrowing the Nicaraguan government by means of the Contra military action, nor had he launched a direct U.S. invasion. 

In 1989 the number of active Pledge chapters dwindled.  The movement continued, however, because U.S. military support for right-wing governments in other countries in Central America remained active under Reagan’s successor.

Expecting this would be the case, Pledge chapters organized a wave of actions around the January 1989 inauguration of Reagan’s successor and former vice president, George H.W. Bush.

The month of May saw banner drops at national monuments in Washington D.C. and cultural attractions in other large cities. Finally, in March of 1990, demonstrators commemorated the tenth anniversary of Oscar Romero’s assassination by U.S.-backed forces with a 15,000 person-strong march on the capital in which 580 protestors were arrested.

While U.S. aid continued to right wing military forces in Central America, the Pledge of Resistance was one of many campaigns in the U.S. Central American peace movement that succeeded in making such support a national issue, and an invasion of Nicaragua, or the overthrow of the Nicaraguan government by Contra forces, a political impossibility for the Reagan and Bush administrations.

From the Global Non-Violent Action Database.